What is procrastination..


Lesson for today is easy & I felt I hv done my duty -</strong>

Procrastination

Procrastination is the practice of carrying out less urgent tasks in preference to more urgent ones, or doing more pleasurable things in place of less pleasurable ones, and thus putting off impending tasks to a later time, sometimes to the “last minute” before the deadline.

The pleasure principle may be responsible for procrastination; one may prefer to avoid negative emotions, and to delay stressful tasks. The belief that one works best under pressure provides an additional incentive to the postponement of tasks.
Some psychologists cite such behavior as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision.

Steel indicated in 2010 that anxiety is just as likely to get people to start working early as late and the focus should be impulsiveness. That is, anxiety will cause people to delay only if they are impulsive.

Schraw, Wadkins, and Olafson in 2007 proposed three criteria for a behavior to be classified as academic procrastination: it must be counterproductive, needless, and delaying.[4] Steel reviewed all previous attempts to define procrastination and in 2007 indicated it is “to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay.”.[5] Sabini & Silver argued that postponement and irrationality are the two key features of procrastination; putting a task off is not procrastination, they argue, if there are rational reasons for doing so.

Procrastination may result in stress, anxiety, a sense of guilt and crisis, health problems, and severe loss of personal productivity, as well as social disapproval for not meeting responsibilities or commitments. These feelings combined may promote further procrastination. While it is regarded as normal for people to procrastinate to some degree, it becomes a problem when it impedes normal functioning. Chronic procrastination may be a sign of an underlying psychological disorder. Such procrastinators may have difficulty seeking support due to social stigma and the belief that task-aversion is caused by laziness, low willpower, or low ambition.On the other hand many regard procrastination as a useful way of identifying what is important to us personally as it is rare to procrastinate when one truly values the task at hand.

Prevalence
In a 1984 study of academic procrastination, 46% of subjects reported that they “always” or “nearly always” procrastinate on writing a paper, whilst approximately 30% procrastinate on studying for exams or on reading for weekly assignments.[7] For a range of tasks, a quarter of subjects reliably reported that procrastination was a problem for them. Approximately 60%, however, indicated that they would like to reduce their procrastination.

Psychological
The strongest connection to procrastination as of 2010 is impulsiveness.[3]

An approach that integrates several core theories of motivation as well as meta-analytic research on procrastination is the temporal motivation theory. It summarizes key predictors of procrastination (expectancy, value and impulsiveness) into a mathematical equation.[5]

Genetics
In a 2014 U.S. study surveying procrastination and impulsivity in fraternal twin and identical twin pairs, both traits were found to be “moderately heritable”. The two traits were not separable at the genetic level (r genetic = 1.0), meaning no unique genetic influences of either trait alone was found.[13] The authors confirmed 3 constructs developed from the evolutionary hypothesis that procrastination arose as a by-product of impulsivity: “(a) Procrastination is heritable, (b) the two traits share considerable genetic variation, and (c) goal-management ability is an important component of this shared variation.”[13]

Facts

For some people, procrastination can be persistent and tremendously disruptive to everyday life. For these individuals, procrastination may be symptomatic of a psychological disorder. Procrastination has been linked to a number of negative associations, such as depression, irrational behaviour, low self-esteem, anxiety, poor study habits,[14] and neurological disorders such as ADHD. Others have found relationships with guilt[15] and stress.[14]Therefore, it is important for people whose procrastination has become chronic and is perceived to be debilitating, to seek out a trained therapist or psychiatrist to see if an underlying mental health issue may be present.[citation needed]

With a distant deadline, procrastinators report significantly less stress and physical illness than do non-procrastinators. However, as the deadline approaches, this relationship is reversed; procrastinators report more stress, more symptoms of physical illness, and more medical visits.[14] to the extent that, overall, procrastinators had suffered more stress and health problems.

Perfectionism
Traditionally, procrastination has been associated with perfectionism, a tendency to negatively evaluate outcomes and one’s own performance, intense fear and avoidance of evaluation of one’s abilities by others, heightened social self-consciousness and anxiety, recurrent low mood, and “workaholism”. However, adaptive perfectionists—when perfectionism is egosyntonic—were less likely to procrastinate than non-perfectionists, while maladaptive perfectionists, who saw their perfectionism as a problem—when perfectionism is egodystonic—had high levels of procrastination and anxiety.[16] In a meta-analysis of 71 studies in 2007, Steel found that perfectionists typically procrastinate slightly less than others, with “the exception being perfectionists who were also seeking clinical counseling.”[5]

Correlates

As noted above, procrastination is consistently found to be strongly correlated with conscientiousness, and moderately so with neuroticism. Though the reasons for the relationship are not clear, there also exists a relationship between procrastination and eveningness; that is to say that those who procrastinate more are more likely to go to sleep later and wake later. It is known that Conscientiousness increases across the lifespan, as does Morningness.[17] Procrastination too decreases with age.[5] However, even controlling for age, there still exists a relationship between procrastination and eveningness, which is yet to be explained.

Testing the hypothesis that procrastinators have less of a focus on the future due to a greater focus on more immediate concerns, college undergraduates completed several self-report questionnaires, which did indeed find that procrastinators focus less on the future. Researchers had also expected to find that procrastination would be associated with a hedonistic and “devil-may-care” perspective on the present; against their expectations, they found that procrastination was better predicted by a fatalistic and hopeless attitude towards life.[18] This finding fits well with previous research relating procrastination and depression[7]

It was also found that procrastination itself may not have contributed significantly to poorer grades. Steel et al. noted that, those students who completed all of the practice exercises “tended to perform well on the final exam no matter how much they delayed”.

Procrastination is considerably more widespread in students than in the general population, with over 70 percent of students reporting procrastination for assignments at some point.[24]A recent panel study from Germany among several thousand university students found that increasing academic procrastination increases the frequency of seven different forms of academic misconduct, i.e., using fraudulent excuses, plagiarism, copying from someone else in exams, using forbidden means in exams, carrying forbidden means into exams, copying parts of homework from others, fabrication or falsification of data and the variety of academic misconduct.[25] This study argues that academic misconduct can be seen as a means to cope with the negative consequences of academic procrastination such as performance impairment.

Justification
Individual coping responses to procrastination are often emotional or avoidant oriented rather than task or problem-solving oriented. Emotion oriented coping is designed to reduce stress (and cognitive dissonance) associated with putting off intended and important personal goals, an option that provides immediate pleasure and is consequently very attractive to impulsive procrastinators.[26][27] There are several identified emotion oriented strategies, similar to Freudian defense mechanisms, coping styles and self-handicapping. These procrastinators include using the following:[citation needed]

Avoidance:
We avoid the locale or situation where the task takes place (e.g., a graduate student avoiding going to university).
Distraction: We engage or immerse ourselves in other behaviors or actions to prevent awareness of the task (e.g., intensive videogame playing or Internet surfing)

Denial:
Pretending that procrastinatory behaviour is not actually procrastinating, but a task which is more important than the avoided one.
Laziness: Procrastinating simply because one is too lazy to do their desired task.
Valorisation: Pointing out in satisfaction what we achieved in the meantime while we should have been doing something else.
Task or problem-solving oriented coping is rarer for the procrastinator because it is more effective in reducing procrastination. If pursued, it is less likely the procrastinator would remain a procrastinator. It requires actively changing one’s behavior or situation to prevent a reoccurrence of procrastination.



My choice of education preps for my son to know my situation.. N for those who are helpless … U r never alone… Unite is the spiritual boost for us to battle this neurology tats unknown.
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€@z¥ just like A B C